Jane English Archive

Personhood: What Constitutes Personhood?

Several ethicists, such as Michael Tooley,17 Mary Anne Warren,18 James Rachels,19 and Virginia Ramey Mollenkott,20 have put forth criteria that a being must fulfill in order to be considered fully human. For some these criteria apply to any entity, whether before or after birth. In fact, according to Tooley, birth has no bearing on the […]

Viability: Is a Fetus a Person Once it Can Live Outside the Mother’s Womb?

As I noted in Part Three, viability is the time at which the unborn human can live outside her mother’s womb. Some have argued that prior to this time, since the unborn cannot survive independent of her mother, she is not a completely independent human life and hence not fully human. Bioethicist Andrew Varga points […]