Article ID: DS510 | By: CRI Statement
THEORY NO. 1
THEORY NO. 2
THEORY NO. 3
Sons of God
Godly line of Seth
Daughters of men
Line of Cain
Marriage between supernatural and mortal
Marriage of holy to unholy
Philo, Josephus, Justin, Ambrose, Apocrypha (Enoch), Delitzsch, Driver, Cassuto, H. Morris, von Rad, Speiser
Aramaic targums, Rashi, Ramban, Jacob
1. The term “sons of God” refers only to angels. (Job 1; 38:7; Ps. 29:1; 89:7)2. Jude 6-7 perhaps refers to this incident.3. It is the clear reading of the text.4. The Septuagint in Job 1 reads “angels of God.”5. Christ says angels do not marry; doesn’t say “cannot.”
1. The concept of a holy line is seemingly established.2. Hebrew indicates continuity from the previous chapter.3. The sin here becomes a common theme throughout the Pentateuch.
1. Magistrates or rulers often referred to as gods (Exod. 21:6; 22:8,9, 28; Ps. 82:1, 6)2. Kings sometimes called Sons of deities.
1. Lends mythological tone.2. Angels were not previously mentioned.3. Why is man punished by the Flood for the wickedness of angels?4. New Testament support is questionable.
1. The term “sons of God” never means this elsewhere.2. No evidence that the lines are kept totally separate. The theory does not account for Adam and Eve’s other children.3. God has not yet begun working through one line.4. The term for “men” is general. It would need further classification to be understood otherwise.5. In Noah’s time he alone was holy.
1. Kingship is not expressed in any way.2. Scripture never considers king to be sons of deity (possible exception: Ps. 2:6-7).3. Needs the connection of v. 4, but the “mighty men” are the Nephilim, not the children of the union.
From: Chronological Charts of the Old Testament, by John Walton (Zondervan)