Article ID: JAL111 | By: Robert Velarde
This article first appeared in the Christian Research Journal, volume 30, number 01 (2007). For further information or to subscribe to the Christian Research Journal please click here.
The award‐winning ABC television series Lost touches on several important and theologically relevant areas. First, the program addresses the relationship between faith and reason. In doing so, Lost contrasts two characters: Locke, the mystical “man of faith,” and Jack, the “man of science.” Lost presents faith and reason as though they are at odds, but Thomas Aquinas rightly argued that faith and reason are intertwined. Second, Lost explores mysticism, fate, and chance. These views are in contrast with the Christian view of the providence of God. Third, the series presents philosophical concepts, particularly in the area of ethics. Two ethical theories featured in the program are ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Both, however, are deficient moral theories. Fourth, although Lost does not offer an overt Christian view of redemption, it nevertheless grapples with guilt‐ridden characters seeking atonement for their sins. Lost is a secular entertainment product of Hollywood, but the themes it addresses at times are of theological and apologetic relevance and value. In a culture saturated with television, it would benefit Christian apologists to be acquainted with popular culture in order to craft pre‐evangelism and evangelism efforts more wisely.
An eye opens and stares up at tall, tropical trees whose branches sway in the wind. A man in a torn suit with fresh scratches on his face lays flat on his back, breathing rapidly. Startled momentarily by the sudden appearance of a dog, he gets up, obviously in pain, and begins to run through thick bamboo, finally reaching a beach where he hears screams and sees the wreckage of a plane crash. As Jack Shephard makes his way through the chaos of the downed aircraft, he hears a cry for help. He then catches sight of a man pinned beneath twisted metal, and runs to treat the trapped man. After all, Jack is a doctor.
The ABC television series Lost, which is now in its third season,1has become a pop culture phenomenon. An average of 16 million viewers tuned in weekly during its first season2—for which it was awarded six Emmys, and an average of 15.5 million viewers tuned in weekly during its second season.3 The first episode of the second season holds the series record of 23 million viewers.4 With an extensive fan base that has generated numerous Web sites, the program has spawned novels tied to the show, a board game, a video game, and an interactive game called “The Lost Experience.” Lost also has captured a global audience, with one survey calling it the second most popular show in the world.5
Lost begins with a simple enough plot. A commercial airliner on its way from Sydney to Los Angeles veers 1,000 miles off course and crashes, leaving more than 40 survivors stranded on a mysterious island. Strangers from all walks of life are brought together by circumstances beyond their control. In addition to the doctor, the cast includes a former Iraqi soldier, a con man, a fugitive, a has‐been rock star, a lottery winner, a mystic survivalist of sorts who used to work for a box company, and many others. As days pass without any sign of rescue, the survivors must learn to “live together” or “die alone.”6After encountering a hostile group they come to know as “the Others,” they realize they are not alone after all.
Lost is more than a tale of mystery and survival, however. Through character‐developing flashbacks and insightful observations, Lost delves deeper than a typical television program into important spiritual matters. It offers a mixture of spiritual beliefs ranging from Roman Catholicism to occult spirituality such as psychic phenomena, astrology, energy healing, and numerology, but it also delves into matters of theological and apologetic relevance. This article will survey four key areas of interest: (1) faith and reason; (2) mysticism, fate, and chance; (3) ethics; and (4) redemption; before discussing them, it will be helpful to address concerns regarding the use of popular culture in reference to apologetics.
APOLOGETICS IN THE AGE OF SHOW BUSINESS
In Amusing Ourselves to Death, Neil Postman wrote about “the decline of the Age of Typography and the ascendancy of the Age of Television,”7and the replacement of the “Age of Exposition” by the “Age of Show Business.”8Television, argued Postman, communicates in a different manner than printed material, its emphasis being on images rather than carefully crafted words. As a result, television, as an entertainment device, discourages rational discourse, claimed Postman. Christian philosopher Douglas Groothuis argues that television’s “unrivaled immediacy, impact and entertainment capabilities…make it a potent agent of truth decay.”9Declaring television “an unreality appliance,”10 Groothuis advises refusing its enticements.11 Kenneth Myers observes, “Television is thus not simply the dominant medium of popular culture, it is the single most significant shared reality in our entire society.”12According to Myers, “Television discourages reflection.”13
I agree with much of what Postman, Groothuis, and Myers write; Myers is correct, for instance, when he acknowledges television as the “dominant medium” of pop culture. It is precisely because this is true, however, that, contrary to what some of those authors write, Christians should seek to engage popular culture and its media wisely, in order to develop apologetics approaches that are relevant to a contemporary audience.
Since space does not allow a thorough assessment of critical views of television and popular culture, I will summarize and offer six points from T. M. Moore’s Redeeming Pop Culture as advice for the wise use of television programs in the field of apologetics. First, Christians must approach popular cultureprayerfully.14 Second, we must approach it intelligently, “with an active, inquisitive mind, one that seeks understanding and is not easily tossed about and carried by every wind of doctrine.”15 Third, we must approach it purposefully in light of the Christian mission “to embody, proclaim, and advance the kingdom of God and His righteousness.” This “means that we may no longer adopt a passive approach,” but instead “must rethink our approach.”16Fourth, Moore advises that we approach pop culture critically. To this end we should “ferret out the presuppositions” of those who “produce and sponsor” pop culture and “analyze the various messages they send.”17 Fifth, we must approach it dialogically (i.e., we should dialogue and interact “with the creators and proponents of popular culture”).18 Finally, Moore advises that we approach pop culture redemptively: “We want to gain whatever benefit popular culture might have for us…while keeping up our guard against being so overwhelmed by the forms of popular culture that our distinctiveness as Christians begins to be obscured.”19
Christians should not embrace pop culture uncritically, but neither should we be out of touch with the world we are called to reach. If a television program such as Lost can be used as an aid to communicating the Gospel, we should use it wisely and within the framework of a solid Christian worldview.
THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LOST
How can Lost be a bridge to apologetics and evangelism? I will address four key areas that serve as touch points for discussion, beginning with faith and reason.
Faith and Reason
“Why do you find it so hard to believe?” asks John Locke, a character with a penchant for mysticism.
“Why do you find it so easy?” replies Jack, a spinal surgeon and a man of science. “It’s never been easy,” declares Locke.20 Locke and Jack often represent faith and reason, respectively. In one episode, Locke underscores their opposing views when he says, “That’s why you and I don’t see eye‐to‐eye sometimes…because you’re a man of science…Me, well, I’m a man of faith.”21
Lost often equates science with reason, while minimizing religious belief on the basis that it only has faith—and apparently often blind faith at that. In this respect, the program reflects the tendency in the real world to view faith as inferior to reason‐based science. Because of Lost’s implicitly interchangeable use of the words “science” and “reason,” I will use the terms interchangeably here. Science, however, is at times unreasonable, such as when it incorporates the presupposition of the truth of philosophical naturalism in its definition and application of science. It is true that some Christians have blind faith, but biblical faith incorporates reason as a component of belief.
Christian theologians long have grappled with the relationship between faith and reason, with St. Augustine making one of the earliest sophisticated efforts. It was Thomas Aquinas, though, who provided the most systematic assessment. Aquinas disagreed with the Muslim philosopher Averroes, who advocated double truth, claiming that there are two kinds of truth, philosophical and religious. As Norman Geisler put it, “Aquinas held that faith and reason intertwine. Faith uses reason, and reason cannot succeed in finding truth without faith.”22 In other words, faith and reason are not mutually exclusive; in Lost, however, Jack appears to view faith and reason as contradictory. Locke, on the other hand, places too much emphasis at times on blind faith. His overarching belief that the island is communicating with him and directing him at times clouds his judgment For instance, despite the fact that Locke has a vision foreshadowing the serious injury or death of Boone, he nevertheless pursues his search for the wreckage of a plane in his quest to follow the leading of the island.23
Lost also sets up a dichotomy between religion and science that in some ways parallels current debate. The ongoing differences between the academic establishment of evolutionary scientists, as a whole, and proponents of Intelligent Design, for instance, demonstrate not only the highly charged rhetoric between the camps, but also the popular misconception that religion and science cannot reasonably coexist. Prominent atheist Richard Dawkins rightly acknowledges, “The big war is not between evolution and creationism, but between naturalism and supernaturalism”24—two worldviews that are mutually exclusive. Naturalism excludes the supernatural, but Christian‐based supernaturalism acknowledges the existence of a supernatural realm as well as the reality of the natural world. Jack and Locke are at odds; a better understanding of the relationship between faith and reason would ease their antagonism.
Mysticism, Fate, and Chance
Lost offers intriguing insights in the areas of mysticism, fate, and chance. The word mysticism suggests the unio mystica—that is, a mystical union between human beings and God or “the absolute.” Mysticism can also refer to knowledge that is spiritually rather than intellectually gained. The difficulties of defining mysticism are many, but Marvin Kohl offers the following starting point:
There is an element of mystery in the universe (something which defies but also intrigues understanding) which cannot be reached by the usual modes of sensory experience; and this mystery is of the utmost significance for mankind. A mystic, therefore, is someone who either believes in, or experiences, an element of mystery in the universe which cannot be reached by the usual modes of sensory experience and to whom the belief or experience is of such significance that the individual structures an activity of his life in its expression or evaluation.25
Lost is filled with its share of mysteries, but Locke offers the most salient insights into mysticism and fate. He reveals his proclivities for mysticism while in Sydney by wanting to go on a “walkabout,” which he describes as “a journey of spiritual renewal, where one derives strength from the earth and becomes inseparable from it.”26 Having been confined to a wheelchair prior to the crash, Locke is miraculously healed on the island. Not long after a mystical encounter with what Locke believes is the island itself, he tells Jack, “I’ve looked into the eye of this island, and what I saw was beautiful.”27
Locke’s mystical experiences have an affinity to animism. Animists view the natural world as somehow imbued with living spirit. Dean Halverson elaborates: “As such, [animism] refers to that which empowers or gives life to something. It follows, then, that animism is the religion that sees the physical world as interpenetrated by spiritual forces—both personal and impersonal—to the extent that objects carry spiritual significance and events have spiritual causes.”28
This mystical, animistic outlook leads Locke to believe that what happens on the island is directed and somehow intertwined with fate. “I’m not a big believer in magic,” he says, “But this place is different. It’s special…we all know it. We all feel it…what if everything that happened here happened for a reason?”29 When another character, Boone, dies in part because of Locke’s following a vision he believes the island gave him, he later remarks, “Boone was a sacrifice that the island demanded. What happened to him…was a part of a chain of events that led us here, that led us down a path, that led you and me to this day, to right now.”30 Prior to Boone’s death, Locke had said to him, “You and I are here for a reason. There’s something that we were meant to find,” thus underscoring Locke’s belief in destiny. “Don’t mistake coincidence for fate” is another line Locke quotes.31Locke’s mystical leanings, which lead him to belief in fate and destiny, can also lead to fatalism—minimizing the value of human choice, because everything that happens does so presumably out of necessity.
Another character on Lost, Kate Austen, offers a counterpoint to fate when she says, “Some things just happen—no rhyme, no reason,”32 and a different character remarks, “There’s no such thing as fate.”33 Somewhere in between these views of fate and chance is a better solution. The Christian concept of providence offers a perspective that eschews both fate and chance in favor of a personal God who directs history with an ultimate and deliberate purpose. History is not cyclical, as in some Eastern views, and neither is it purposeless, as in the blind chance of naturalism; instead, “history is linear, a meaningful sequence of events leading to the fulfillment of God’s purposes for humanity.”34
Providence, however, should not be viewed only as God‐centered, but primarily as Christ‐centered: “Providence is God’s gracious outworking of his purpose in Christ which issues in his dealings with man…from the beginning God has ordered the course of events toward Jesus Christ and his incarnation…the doctrine of providence tells us that the world and our lives are not ruled by chance or by fate but by God, who lays bare his purposes of providence in the incarnation of his Son.”35
Lost offers hints in the area of philosophy, such as suggestive character names.36 Its greatest contribution in this area, however, is in the realm of ethics.
The character James Ford, known as “Sawyer,” is the chief example of someone who lives (however unconsciously) by the philosophy known as ethical egoism. His ethics clearly are based on his motto of “every man for himself,” highlighting a key difference between Sawyer and Jack. (In one episode Jack says, “Every man for himself is not going to work…if we can’t live together, we’re going to die alone.”37) Sawyer nonetheless repeatedly trumpets his belief in “every man for himself.”38
Ethical egoism, as the term implies, is based on self‐interest. As a result, moral actions or inactions are based on how the outcome will affect the individual applying the philosophy. In a conversation with Jack, who wants to find all the medication he can to save a dying man, Sawyer says, “You’re just not looking at the big picture, Doc. You’re still back in civilization.” Jack responds, “And where are you?” Sawyer rebuts, “Me? I’m in the wild.”39 In another episode, Sawyer comments, “Folks down on the beach might have been doctors and accountants a month ago, but it’s Lord of the Flies time, now.”40To Sawyer this means “every man for himself.”41 Sawyer’s remarks intimate that he believes he is entitled to do what is necessary to look after himself.
Ethical egoism has many problems, three of which Scott Rae has noted as follows: “First, egoism has no means to settle conflicts of interest between individuals and groups without appealing to some other system…. Second, ethical egoism ultimately collapses into anarchy…. Third, egoism is an arbitrary ethical system.”42
Utilitarianism, of which Lost also provides examples, is an ethical theory that appeals to contemporary sensibilities because it has no ties to organized religion and because it offers an apparent moral flexibility that is not present in divine command or deontological ethical systems, where rules and laws are the standard. Utilitarianism instead emphasizes consequences over the intrinsic rightness or wrongness of moral acts. Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number is its goal.43
The clearest examples of utilitarianism in Lost are situations in which characters believe the best way to attain the greatest good for the greatest number is by torture. The survivors hold prisoner a man who was captured in the jungle and want to determine whether he is telling the truth and whether he is one of the Others. In order to do so, and because they believe it is in their best interest, they allow Sayid Jarrah, a former Iraqi interrogator, to beat and torture him.44 At first, Jack is hesitant, but, ultimately, he approves of this strategy. In another instance, Sayid tortures Sawyer in order to obtain medical supplies the group believes he has hidden.45
The survivors apply utilitarian ethics in these cases in order to justify their actions. Who decides, however, what is beneficial or harmful to the most people in the long term? On what basis is something\\ deemed “beneficial” or “harmful”? Based on our limited human understanding, it is conceivable to choose what may appear to be the greatest good at a particular time, but what of the future? It is possible that a utilitarian decision that at the time seemed justified may end up causing future problems. Utilitarianism also has the inherent potential to allow injustices, such as slavery and the persecution of minorities as well as torture, based on its support of the most expedient and greatest benefit for the greatest number. Such actions are not truly justifiable, however, either on the basis of utilitarianism’s own inherent inadequacies or, of course, in light of God’s revealed moral standards.
In Him We Have Redemption
“In him [Christ] we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace,” reads Ephesians 1:7.46 Redemption and the concept of a redeemer are critical to Christianity. Redemption means payment or ransom, including for the release of a slave from bondage, which implies the need for salvation. An Old Testament example of redemption involved setting a family member free or reclaiming (i.e., redeeming) that person’s property (e.g., Lev. 25:25). The concept also is\\ found in the sacrificial system of the Old Testament. In Mark 10:45, Jesus refers to the concept of redemption when He says, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” Jesus gave His life to redeem us from our fallen condition.
Lost underscores themes of redemption, but not in an overt Christian sense. Characters struggle with guilt and the need to atone for sins, but Lost focuses on self‐redemption rather than Christ‐centered redemption. Despite the fact that Lost provides examples of contradictory ethical systems and ideas, to its credit the program also acknowledges the reality of right and wrong and, more importantly, the need to come to terms with bad choices.
Kate murdered her stepfather and has been a fugitive ever since. While she was evading police, her childhood sweetheart was killed. On the island, Kate struggles to understand and accept what happened, often taking risks for the greater good of the survivors, but still falling into habits of deception. Sawyer, too, struggles with his past misdeeds, which include murder and his work as a con man. Mr. Eko, however, offers the greatest insights into themes of redemption by rejecting redemption because he did not believe he had any need for it.
Raised with his younger brother, Yemi, in a Roman Catholic orphanage in Nigeria, Eko’s life takes a turn for the worse when a gang of thugs arrive and demand that Yemi shoot a man. Eko intervenes and shoots the man instead. Eko, taken by the thugs, grows up among them, becoming ruthless in his own right. After finalizing a drug deal with two men, one of them tells Eko, “You have no soul,”47resulting in Eko’s murder of both men. Eko returns to the church where he was raised and speaks with Yemi, who is now a priest. “I have come to give my confession,” says Eko, but Yemi is not fooled. “Why waste your time confessing? It won’t help you…for confession to mean something, you must have a penitent heart.” Eko is unconvinced: “You and your guilt, Yemi. I’ve only done what I needed to do to survive. How is that a sin?”48Eko and his men later force Yemi to sign documents ordaining them as priests (they intend to fly drugs out of Nigeria under the cover of the church). As the plane is being readied for departure, Yemi arrives. A confrontation with the military leaves Yemi dead and Eko mistaken for a real priest—a role he plays even on the island.
Eko is a particularly interesting character when it comes to the theme of redemption because he obviously bears the marks of Christian influence. He is familiar with the Bible, as is demonstrated when he shares the story of Josiah and by his carving of Scripture references on his walking stick.49 In a flashback, when taking confession, Eko tells a man, “To receive God’s forgiveness you must be penitent for your sins.”50 When he kills two of the Others in self‐defense, Eko is remorseful, and takes a vow of silence for 40 days.51 After he finds the remains of his brother in the wreckage of a plane crash, Eko weeps and asks for forgiveness.52 He also begins building a church on the island.53
Through these and other indications, Eko seems open to redemption, but when the island deems it time for Eko to be judged, he is impenitent. We learn in another flashback that, while posing as a priest, Eko killed three thugs in Yemi’s church. Eko is also guilty of committing other murders and transporting drugs. When Yemi appears to Eko in a vision, ready to hear his confession, however, Eko offers an unrepentant defense: “I ask for no forgiveness, Father, for I have not sinned. I have only done what I needed to do to survive…when I was a young boy I killed a man to save my brother’s life. I am not sorry for this. I am proud of this. I did not ask for the life that I was given, but it was given nonetheless—and with it, I did my best.”54 Eko represents the stubborn human will that strives with God and is unable to make peace until true humility leads to true repentance and with it, true redemption.
LOST, APOLOGETICS, AND PRE‐EVANGELISM
Communicating worldview concepts in an age of show business and mass communication offers new apologetics challenges. Two of T. M. Moore’s points about approaching popular culture, noted earlier, are particularly relevant. Looking at culture redemptively, but with discernment, can help Christians be salt and light in a world saturated with entertainment, rather than being perceived as prudish, holier‐than-thou curmudgeons bent on boycotting anything even remotely considered entertaining and “of the world.”
Having a dialogue‐based approach also allows for interaction with people who are immersed in popular culture. This can take the form of simply being aware of a pop culture phenomenon such as Lost in order better to engage in conversation with friends, coworkers, or neighbors who may be more likely to be receptive to Christian truth if the common ground for presenting it is based on something to which they can relate. Lost offers many opportunities for turning discussions to worldview matters. For instance, a discussion about Locke could turn to the concept of animism, contrasting it with Christianity, whereas a discussion about Sawyer can grapple with ethics.
Granted, Lost is an entertainment product of secular Hollywood. As such, it cannot be expected to address Christian themes overtly. At times, it nevertheless offers surprisingly astute dialogue, character development, and observations that can be applied to Christian apologetics, particularly in pre-evangelism efforts. Contemporary culture is inundated with television and other forms of entertainment. The careful apologist should be familiar to some extent with the influence of pop culture phenomena, such as Lost, in order to incorporate relevant elements into a broader apologetics approach. In an increasingly pluralistic and entertainment‐driven culture, apologists must learn to interact with those who hold differing beliefs, without compromising Christian truth.—-Robert Velarde
- This article reviewed content through “I Do,” Lost, Season 3, ABC; original U.S. air date November 8, 2006.
- Promo, December 1, 2006, Amy Johannes, “Lost No More,” http://promomagazine.com/entertainmentmarketing/marketing_lost_no/.
- “Lost (TV series),” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Wikipedia Foundation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_ (TV_series).
- Paul J. Gough, “‘Lost’ Loses Almost 5 Million Viewers,” Hollywood Reporter, October 5, 2006.
- BBC News, “CSI Show ‘Most Popular in World,’” July 31, 2006; available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/5231334.stm.
- This phrase is first uttered by Jack in “White Rabbit,” Lost, Season 1, ABC. “Live Together, Die Alone” is also the title of the two‐part Season 2 finale.
- Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (New York: Penguin Books, 1985), 8.
- Ibid., 63.
- Douglas Groothuis, Truth Decay: Defending Christianity against the Challenges of Postmodernism(Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000), 281.
- Ibid., 281–82.
- Ibid., 295.
- Kenneth A. Myers, All God’s Children and Blue Suede Shoes: Christians and Popular Culture (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1989), 160.
- Ibid., 165.
- M. Moore, Redeeming Pop Culture: A Kingdom Approach(Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 2003), 109–13.
- Ibid., 113.
- Ibid., 117.
- Ibid., 120.
- Ibid., 123.
- Ibid., 126.
- “Orientation,” Season 2. Jack seems to think faith is easy. In fact, it can be quite difficult, and not necessarily because it is founded on false hopes. Faith can be the product of sound reasoning rather than an abandonment of it, and battling doubts can be a battle against irrationality rather than a suppression of truth and sound reason.
- “Exodus,” Season 1. Several examples serve to substantiate that Locke is a man of faith. When Locke assures the drug‐addicted musician Charlie that he will see his guitar again, Locke says, “Because I have faith” (“House of the Rising Sun,” Season 1). When Boone doubts their ability to break open a hatch, Lock says, “You’ve got to have some faith,” later adding, “All that’s happening now is our faith is being tested” (“Deus Ex Machina,” Season 1).
- Norman Geisler, Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1999), s.v. “Faith and Reason.”
- “Deus Ex Machina,” Season 1.
- Gary Wolf, “The Church of the Non‐Believers,” Wired, November 2006; available at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.11/atheism.html.
- Marvin Kohl, “The Unanimity Argument and the Mystics,” Hibbert Journal 58 (1959): 275. Cited in Winfried Corduan, Mysticism: An Evangelical Option? (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991).
- “Walkabout,” Season 1.
- “White Rabbit,” Season 1.
- Dean C. Halverson, gen. ed., The Compact Guide to World Religions(Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1996), 37.
- “White Rabbit,” Season 1.
- “Exodus,” Season 1. In another episode (“?” Season 2), Locke again says that Boone was a sacrifice the island demanded and, when Locke has a drug‐induced vision, he sees Boone, who says, “I was the sacrifice the island demanded” (“Further Instructions,” Season 3).
- “The Cost of Living,” Season 3. It is Eko who first says this to Locke (“What Kate Did,” Season 2).
- “The Moth,” Season 1. Another character, Juliet, acts as a proponent of free will, thus emphasizing human choice over fate (See “A Tale of Two Cities,” Season 3, and “The Cost of Living,” Season 3).
- “Exodus,” Season 1. This is said by Claire, a single woman who gives birth to a child on the island. Her comment is out of character, since she has a past interest in astrology.
- James W. Sire, The Universe Next Door, 4th ed. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004), 42.
- Walter A. Elwell, ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology(Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984), s.v. “Providence of God,” by Thomas Parker.
- Locke is presumably named after John Locke, the English philosopher, while Desmond’s full name is Desmond David Hume, a reference to the Scottish philosopher David Hume. The Frenchwoman Danielle Rousseau is suggestive of Jean Jacques Rousseau.
- “White Rabbit,” Season 1
- See “…And Found,” Season 2 and “Every Man for Himself,” Season 3.
- Tabula Rasa,” Season 1.
- “…In Translation,” Season 1.
- To his credit, in “I Do” (Season 3), Sawyer is willing to sacrifice himself so that Kate will live—an uncharacteristic act, demonstrating that Sawyer is maturing ethically.
- Scott Rae, Moral Choices, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000), 83.
- Lost presents act utilitarianism, wherein the emphasis is placed on consequences of actions in order to determine moral behavior.
- “One of Them,” Season 2.
- “Confidence Man,” Season 1.
- Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture quotations are from the New International Version
- “The 23rd Psalm,” Season 2.
- “What Kate Did,” Season 2, “The 23rd Psalm,” Season 2.
- “?” Season 2.
- “The Other 48 Days,” Season 2.
- “The 23rd Psalm,” Season 2
- “?” Season 2.
- “The Cost of Living,” Season 3.