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04 From the Editor
The Place of Cultural Awareness in Apologetics
06 The Use and Misuse of Testimony: A Stealth Strategy for Effective Dialogue with Mormons
by Corey Miller
Today’s Religious Movements (Effective Evangelism): Christian evangelists know that Mormons often are unresponsive to sound argumentation, and that this is a matter of authority. What many Christians miss is the primary role of the Mormon “testimony,” rather than their prophets or scriptures, in effecting this mind freeze. What exactly is the Mormon testimony, how does it differ from Christian testimony, and how can Christians counter it?
14 The Apologetic Value of Coincidences in New Testament Reporting
by Lydia McGrew
Biblical Apologetics (Practical Hermeneutics): If four reporters covering the same story were close up to the facts, known to be truthful, and at least partly independent, we would expect them to include different parts of the same story that would cohere with, complement, and complete each other’s reporting. This is exactly what we find in the four Gospels.
18 Malcolm X and the Christian Ethic of Violence
by Jimmy Butts
Ethical Discernment and Apologetics: First a prominent voice for the Nation of Islam and then for a violent alternative to Martin Luther King Jr.’s civil rights approach, Malcolm X is arguably one of the most important African American thinkers. His ethic of violence is more compatible with Christian ethics than many would think, but the two nonetheless diverge at a crucial point.
26 Spirituality in Modern Hip Hop: The Theology of Kendrick Lamar and Chance the Rapper
by Vocab Malone
Cultural Discernment and Apologetics: Hip hop music often has been “spiritually minded,” but recent times have seen less spiritual content as hedonism and nihilism have permeated the genre. Yet, there are anomalies: Chance the Rapper and Kendrick Lamar are bringing new attention to theological concepts in hip hop. But are their theologies sound and their values consistent?
34 Street Epistemology: The New Atheist Evangelism
by Travis M. Dickinson
Philosophical/Practical Apologetics: You may find yourself approached on the street for a discussion about religious faith. Sounds like Christian street witnessing, right? It could rather be you’re facing an atheist (and often a GoPro video recorder) engaging you in “street epistemology.” Many complying Christians have failed this very public (YouTube!) test miserably, but this need not be you.
42 How Was Orthodoxy Established in the Ecumenical Councils?
by Bradley Nassif
Theological/Historical Apologetics: A small but influential group of scholars asserts that the notion of “orthodox Christianity” must be abandoned because it never really existed. “Orthodoxy” was simply the victory of powerful emperors and bishops over so-called “heretical” groups. The same view is often echoed in popular media, but it is soundly refuted by the historical record itself.
48 “Your Word Is a Lamp to My Feet”: Metaphor and the Work of the Apologist
by Holly Ordway
Practical Apologetics: Metaphor can be a powerful tool in the hands of apologists because it helps to bridge the gap between what is known and what is unknown. It can be applied apologetically in at least two major areas: addressing objections to Scripture and helping people grasp the meaning of Christian ideas.
Gregory Coles’s Single, Gay, Christian
60 Postmodern Realities
Comic Cons, Geek Culture, and the Mission of Christ
62 Ask Hank
What Is the Solution to Illiberal Liberalism and Illicit Islam?